Women's History Month: Celebrating the woman behind Outward Bound
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Women's History Month: Celebrating the woman behind Outward Bound

Women's History Month is an annual declared month that highlights the contributions of women to events in history and contemporary society. It is celebrated during March, and we're kicking the month off by remembering Marina Ewald - the woman behind Outward Bound.

Marina Ewald

Anyone who thinks they know the history of Outward Bound, but hasn’t heard of Marina Ewald, should think again. It almost seems surprising that, given her founding role in the origin story of experiential learning, she isn’t a household name. Or at least a name recognised by those of us with a passion for Outward Bound.

Marina was a childhood friend of Kurt Hahn, co-founder of the original Outward Bound Sea School in Aberdovey in 1941. Hahn was an educationalist who also founded the Salem School in Germany in 1920 and Gordonstoun School in Scotland in 1934. At both of these schools’ expeditions played a prominent role in the education of the students. Both Hahn and Ewald were proponents of the Lietz Country Boarding Schools, founded between 1898 and 1904 and based on a new philosophy of education, orientated towards sociological principles – principles that both Hahn and Ewald took forward in their work.

Marina was a teacher at the Salem School from its inception, and became director of Spetzgart, an expansion of Salem, in 1929. Hahn described Ewald as “a co-founder of Salem. She was a partner in all the major decisions – an educator in her own right…Her contribution is held in high regard.” (1968: 1)


One of Marina’s most notable gifts to the future of Outward Bound came in 1925. Along with another teacher from Salem, she took 20 students on a 4-week expedition to Finland. The idea for the expedition came from Ewald – she was the leader and only woman on the trip, which was a long and hazardous one. It involved travelling by steamer to Finland, and from there buying boats (barges) that could be tied together. The trip started on Lake Saimaa and involved travelling overland by truck and then putting the boats back onto the water on Lake Paijann and sailing down to Lahti in the south. The party camped on remote islands and lived partly by shooting and fishing.

This expedition marked a key turning point in Kurt Hahn’s pedagogical approach. Ewald herself understood the profound impact it had both on the students and on future educational programmes, describing it as:

…like a voyage of discovery. For all the participants it was one of the happiest experiences of those years. Because of its success, Kurt Hahn therefore attached the greatest importance to expeditions carefully planned beforehand and carried out with endurance. They have become an essential part of his educational programme.
Ewald 1970: 34

The success of the Finnish expedition was a key factor behind Hahn’s adoption of strenuous expeditions as an essential part of his educational philosophy. It is perhaps curious, given Hahn’s focus on the development of character in young men as opposed to women, that he didn’t publicly revere Ewald for possessing what might well have been perceived as a quite extraordinary spirit.


Hahn was Jewish, and his fierce public opposition to the Nazi regime meant he was forced to leave Germany in 1933 and move to Britain. Ewald kept in touch with Hahn and visited him until the outbreak of World War II. Ewald continued to be the driving force at Salem during this time, but in the years of the Nazi regime the school went through the most difficult period in its history.

In 1941 the Nazis took control of the school and eventually shut it down in July of 1945. However, just a few months later, Ewald reopened the school free from Nazi influence. Salem was able to pick up where it left off and thanks to her leadership, the school is still thriving today.


So there you have it. In Women's History Month we celebrate Marina Ewald. Without her we may never have had an ‘Outward-Bound style expedition’. Of those closest to Hahn who had a strong influence on the development of outdoor experiential learning, we’re not sure any can match Marina in having such a defining role.

The fact that so few people have heard of Marina is sadly not a shock. We know that we still have a long way to go before we have an industry that values and promotes the skills, successes and contribution of women as much as men.

We always want more. More equality. Less bias. That’s why at Outward Bound we’re working hard to understand the (lack of) diversity within our instructor team, and the broader challenges that females face within the industry more broadly.

We have plenty more for you to read on the subject as well as a funded programme that aims to develop more women instructors. Take a look at the links below.

Ewald, M. (1970). Salem School, 1919–33: Foundation and expansion. In H. Rohrs & H. Tunstall-Behrens (Eds.), Kurt Hahn (pp. 22–38). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
Hahn, K. (1968). Letter to Skidelsky, from 7777 Salem, Baden. Dated 14th August 1968. Available from Gordonstoun School Archive, Gordonstoun School, Elgin, Moray, Scotland.

Further Reading